Drupal 7, our much-loved CMS that was released in 2011, is nearing the end of its life. No, that's not hyperbole; Drupal 7 is scheduled to reach end-of-life in November 2022. Drupal 8 has been out for a few years, but at the time of this writing, Drupal core usage statistics indicate that only about 350,000 of the more than 1.1 million reporting Drupal core sites are using Drupal 8.x. Over 730,000 of those sites are still using Drupal 7. If your site is one of those 730,000 still on Drupal 7, should you upgrade to Drupal 9?
Drupal 7 is coming to an end
Whether or not you choose to upgrade to Drupal 9, it's time to acknowledge one very important truth: Drupal 7 is coming to an end. After a decade in service, Drupal 7 will stop receiving official community support in November 2021, and the Drupal Association will stop supporting Drupal 7 on Drupal.org. Automated testing for Drupal 7 will stop being supported via Drupal.org, and Drupal 7 will no longer receive official security support.
Beyond the loss of support for Drupal 7 core, there is less focus on the Drupal 7 version of many contributed modules. Some of them are quite stable and may work well into the future, but others are more neglected. The reality is that once module maintainers have moved their own sites to Drupal 8 or Drupal 9, they may lose interest in spending the time it takes to keep a Drupal 7 version of their code up to date.
Upgrading from Drupal 7 is harder than from Drupal 8
Drupal 8 was released in November 2015. When the Drupal Association announced Drupal 9, they discussed a big change coming to the Drupal ecosystem: Major Drupal version changes would no longer be a substantial replatforming effort, but would instead be a continuation of an iterative development process. In practice, this means that Drupal 9 is built in Drupal 8, using deprecations and optional updated dependencies. The result is that upgrading from Drupal 8 to Drupal 9 is just an iterative change from the final Drupal 8 version. Drupal 9.0 involves the removal of some deprecated code, but introduces no new features; it's a continuation of the fully-tested, stable codebase that is Drupal 8. Basically, Drupal 9.0 is just another release of Drupal 8.
On the other hand, Drupal 7 has significant differences from Drupal 8 and 9. The jump from Drupal 7 to Drupal 9 can be an enormous undertaking. Third-party libraries replaced huge swaths of custom Drupal code. The procedural code was reworked into object-oriented code. The code changes were massive. Upgrading a Drupal 7 site to Drupal 9 will bring it into the new upgrade paradigm, but there's quite a bit of work to do to get there. So the question of whether, and how, to make the jump to Drupal 9 is more complicated.
That leaves Drupal 7 sites with a handful of options:
- Migrate to Drupal 9
- Migrate to another CMS (like Backdrop CMS)
- Convert the Drupal 7 website to a static site
- Engage a Drupal 7 Extended Support (ES) vendor
- Continue to use Drupal 7 unsupported
We’ll focus on the first option in this article, and the others later.
Benefits of Drupal 8 and 9
While Drupal 8 is a big change from Drupal 7, it features many developmental and editorial improvements that pay dividends for users who are willing to take the time to learn how to use them.
Lots of contributed module functionality now in core
One of the biggest upsides of Drupal 8 and Drupal 9 versus Drupal 7 is the fact that many of the things that require contributed modules in Drupal 7 are just baked into core now. This includes things like:
- Layout Builder provides the ability to create customized page layouts that Panels or Display Suite provide in Drupal 7.
- Blocks have been re-imagined to be fieldable and re-usable, things that require contributed modules like Bean in Drupal 7.
- You don’t need to install a contributed module and third-party libraries to get a WYSIWYG editor; it’s built into core.
- Views is in core, and most of the custom lists in core are now fully customizable views.
- Media handling is not an add-on. It’s an integral feature. To get similar functionality in Drupal 7, you need a half dozen or more complicated contributed Media framework modules, each of which might require quite a bit of additional configuration. You can get a pretty decent media handling experience in Drupal 9 by doing nothing more than enabling the Media and Media Library modules and using the default configuration.
- Web services are built in, like JSON:API.
- Customized editorial workflows are now available in core, providing functionality that would have required contributed modules like Workbench Moderation or Workflow.
That’s just to mention a few features; there are many things in core that would require contributed modules in Drupal 7.
Maintaining this functionality is simplified by having more of it in core. Managing fewer contributed modules simplifies the process of keeping them in sync as you update versions and dependencies, and trying to decide what to do when you get a conflict or something breaks. As Drupal 7 development falls by the wayside, this is even more important, as it could take months - or longer - to get updates to Drupal 7 contributed modules, until they’re no longer supported at all after end-of-life.
Having these solutions in core means everyone is using the same solution, instead of splintering developer focus in different directions. And having them in core means they’re well-tested and maintained.
Composer gets us off the island
One of the changes to Drupal since the Drupal 7 release is that Drupal 8 and 9 extensively use third party libraries like Symfony for important functionality, instead of relying on custom Drupal-specific code for everything. That move “off the island” has introduced a need to manage Drupal’s dependencies on those libraries. This is handled with yet another tool, a package called Composer.
You need to manage the dependencies of these new top-level third-party libraries, but each of these libraries has dependencies on other libraries, which have dependencies on more libraries, creating a confusing spiderweb of dependencies and requirements and potential conflicts. Dependency management quickly becomes a maintenance nightmare. It’s a new tool to learn, but Composer is a great dependency manager. Taking the time to learn Composer gives developers a powerful new tool to deal with dependency management.
Composer can do other things. If you add cweagans/composer-patches, it’s also a very useful tool for managing patches from Drupal.org. You can add a patches section to composer.json with links to the patches you want to watch. Composer will automatically apply the patches, and your composer.json file becomes a self-documenting record of the patches in use.
You can read more about Composer in another Lullabot article: Drupal 8 Composer Best Practices.
No more Features for configuration management
In Drupal 7, many sites deploy configuration using the Features module. Depending on who you ask, using Features for configuration management could be regarded as a good thing or a bad thing. Many developers maintain that Drupal 8 (and therefore Drupal 9’s) Configuration Management system, which allows database configuration to be exported to YML files, is much easier than the Drupal 7 Features system. As with Composer, it takes time to learn, but it enables developers who understand the system to accomplish more with less effort.
Secure PHP support
Drupal 7 sites could be running on deprecated versions of PHP, even as old as 5.3. Drupal 7 sites should already have moved to PHP 7, but could still be running on older, very outdated and insecure, versions of PHP. Drupal 7 currently works with PHP 7.3 but has problems with PHP 7.4. As PHP continues to progress and deprecate older versions, you may find that you can no longer keep your Drupal 7 site running on a secure version of PHP. Drupal 8 runs on PHP 7.0+, and Drupal 9 runs on and requires a minimum of PHP 7.3, so both provide a better window of compatibility with secure PHP versions.
Resistance to migrating to Drupal 8 and 9
There are some reasons why sites delay making this move:
Lack of Drupal 8 versions of Drupal 7 contributed modules
Early in Drupal 8’s release cycle, one of the big complaints about Drupal 8 was that many Drupal 7 contributed modules no longer worked in D8. It did take time for some contributed modules to be updated to Drupal 8. However, many Drupal 7 contributed modules were no longer needed in Drupal 8, because the functionality they provided is now a part of Drupal 8 core.
If you haven’t checked the state of Drupal contributed modules in the last few years, take a look at what’s now available for Drupal 8. You can check the Drupal 8 Contrib Porting Tracker to find the status of popular Drupal 7 modules and see whether they’ve gotten a Drupal 8 stable release. You may find that modules that were missing early on are now available, or that you no longer need some contributed modules because that functionality is now managed in another way.
More importantly, you don’t have to worry about lack of parity in Drupal 8 contributed modules when Drupal 9 is released; as long as the Drupal 8 module in question isn’t built on deprecated code, everything that works in 8.x should continue to work in Drupal 9. And if a D8 module is built on deprecated code, the maintainer should be aware of it. All the code that is being removed in Drupal 9 has already been deprecated in Drupal 8.8, so there won’t be any surprises for module or site maintainers.
Maintenance overhead for small teams
With the introduction of Drupal 8 and Drupal 9, the new paradigm in Drupal development is more frequent, smaller releases. This mirrors a larger trend in software development, where iterative development means frameworks make more frequent releases, and consequently, those releases aren’t supported as long.
This means you need to commit to keeping your site current with the latest releases. If you’re part of a small team managing a large Drupal site, you may simply not have the bandwidth or expertise to keep up with updates.
There are some tools to make it easier to keep a site current. There is an Automatic Updates module that might be helpful for small sites. That module is a work in progress, and it does not yet support contributed module updates or composer based site installs. These are planned for Phase 2. But this is a project to keep an eye on.
You can manage updates yourself using Composer and Drush. Sites of any size can also use DependaBot, a service that creates automatic pull requests with updates.
And of course, some web hosts and most Drupal vendors will provide update services for a fee and just take care of this for you.
The new way of doing things is harder
The final complaint that has prevented many Drupal 7 sites from upgrading to Drupal 8 and Drupal 9 is that the new way of doing things is harder. Or, if not harder, different. There’s a lot to unpack here. In some cases, this reflects resistance to learning and using new tools. In other cases, it may be that long-time Drupal developers have a hard time learning new paradigms. Another option may be that developers are simply not interested in learning a new stack, and may no longer want to develop in new versions of Drupal.
Drupal 6 and 7 have a lot of “Drupalisms,” Drupal-specific, custom ways of doing things, so developers who have been deep into Drupal for a long time may feel the number of things to re-learn is overwhelming. Fortunately, the “new” things, such as Composer, Twig, and PHPUnit are used by other PHP projects, so there is a lot that Drupal 7 developers can learn that will be useful if they work on a Symfony or Laravel project, for example.
Developing for Drupal 8 and Drupal 9 is certainly different compared to Drupal 7 and older versions. Some developers may choose this as a turning point to shift gears into other career paths, developing for a different stack, or making a more substantial change. But with the Drupal 7 end-of-life approaching, developers who don’t want to move to Drupal 8 and Drupal 9 must make some move, just as Drupal 7 sites must move to a modern platform.
In today's world, enterprises have a responsibility to protect their website users' personal data - and they face costly liability considerations if they don't. For many organizations, this means website security is a looming and ongoing concern. It's common for enterprise security policies to require that organizations only use services with ongoing security support. Relative to the Drupal 9 upgrade, this means that many enterprises can't continue to maintain Drupal 7 websites after they stop receiving security support.
But what does “no more security support” actually mean?
When Drupal 7 reaches end-of-life, the Drupal community at large will no longer provide “official” security updates or bug fixes. The Drupal Security Team will no longer provide support or Security Advisories for Drupal 7 sites. Automated or manual processes that you currently use to update your sites may no longer work.
There is a bit of nuance to the lack of security support, however. The Drupal 7 ES program involves partnering with a Drupal Association-vetted vendor and assuring that the vendor is coordinating responsible disclosure of security issues and fixes while publicly sharing the work toward those fixes.
Practically speaking, this means that even if you’re not partnered with an ES vendor, you can still get security patches for your site. However, websites using modules that aren’t actively supported by ES vendors won’t have the benefit of a partner to hunt down and fix issues with those modules, security, or otherwise. If you have modules or other dependencies that age out of security updates, such as the end-of-life of the PHP version you’re hosting, you may be left with a website with an increasing number of security holes.
Additionally, after November 2021, Drupal 7 core and Drupal 7 releases on all project pages will be flagged as not supported. As a result, third-party scans may flag sites using Drupal 7 as insecure since they’ll no longer get official security support.
No more bug fixes or active development
Alongside security considerations, a lesser concern of the Drupal 7 end-of-life timeline is an official end to community-at-large bug fixes and active development. Drupal 7 development has already shifted to focus on Drupal 8 over the past several years, with Drupal 7 bugs lingering. For example, take a look at the Drupal.org issue queue for Drupal 7 core bugs; you’ll see issues that haven’t been updated for weeks or months, versus hours or days for Drupal 8/9 development issues.
Questions to ask when migrating from Drupal 7
So how do you decide which path is right for your organization? Here are some questions to ask.
What are the skills and size of your development team?
The shift from Drupal 7 to Drupal 8 and Drupal 9 involved a shift from Drupal-specific paradigms to incorporating more general object-oriented programming concepts. If your team consists of long-time Drupal developers who haven't done a lot of object-oriented programming, this paradigm shift involves a learning curve that does have an associated cost. For some budget-conscious organizations, this may mean it's more economical to remain on Drupal 7 while developers work on skilling up for Drupal 8/Drupal 9 paradigms.
Another consideration is the size of your development team. If your team is small, you may need to engage an agency for help or explore the other alternatives mentioned above.
What are the plans for the site?
How much active development is being done on the site? Are you planning to add new features, or is the site in maintenance mode? What is your budget and plan to maintain the site; do you have developers devoted to ongoing maintenance, or is it one small priority among many competing priorities?
If you're planning to add new features, the best option is to migrate to Drupal 8 and Drupal 9. Drupal 9 is under active development, and these modern systems may already include the new features you want to add. If not, working in an ecosystem that's under active development generally reduces development overhead.
What is the life expectancy of the site?
How many years do you expect the current iteration of the site to continue? Are you planning to use the site for three more years before a major redesign and upgrade? Eight more years? Sites with a shorter lifespan may be good candidates for Drupal 7 ES, while sites with longer life expectancies would benefit from upgrading to a modern platform with a longer lifespan.
What code is the site using?
Do an inventory of your site's code. What contributed modules are you using? What do you have that's custom? Drupal 8 upgrade evaluation is a good place to start.
Some Drupal 7 contributed modules have Drupal 8 and Drupal 9 versions available, while others no longer apply in a world with different programming paradigms. Still, others may now be a part of Drupal 9 core.
If you're using a lot of custom modules and code, migrating to Drupal 8 and Drupal 9 is a bigger project. You might be able to mitigate some of that by altering the scope of your new site to take more advantage of the new capabilities of core and the available Drupal 8 contributed modules.
What features do you want?
Make a list of the features that are important to your organization. This should include features that your site currently has that you couldn't live without, and features you'd like to have but currently don't. Then, do a feature comparison between Drupal 8 and Drupal 9, and any other options you're considering. This may drive your decision to migrate, or you may decide that you can live without "must-have" features based on availability.
Where to go from here
Bottom line: with the Drupal 7 end-of-life date coming up, now is the time to scope your site changes. But where do you go from here? The next few articles in this series explore how and when to upgrade from Drupal 7 to Drupal 9 and alternate solutions if upgrading isn’t a good choice for your organization. Stay tuned!